Classifications From the 2nd Edition of The International Headache Classification (ICHD-2) ____________________________________________________________________________ PRIMARY HEADACHES MIGRAINE WITHOUT AURA. . . Recurrent headache disorder manifesting in attacks lasting 4-72 hours. Typical characteristics of the headache are unilateral location, pulsating quality, moderate or severe intensity, aggravation by routine physical activity and association with nausea and/or photophobia and phonophobia…. Read more »


Resting tremor, or Parkinsonian tremor, occurs when the muscle is relaxed, such as when the hands are lying on the lap or hanging next to the trunk while standing or walking.  It may be seen as a shaking of the limb, even when the person is at rest.  Often, the tremor affects only the hand or fingers…. Read more »

Cranial Nerves

1. Olfactory (smell) 2. Optic a. Acuity (Snellen card) b. Fundi (vessels, disc border, cup/disc ratio), visual fields 3. Oculomotor a. Pupillary reaction (light, accommodation, afferent pupillary defect), extraocular movements, nystagmus Oculomotor Nerve Palsy . . . is a disorder that presents with mixed horizontal and vertical binocular diplopia, pupil enlargement, and lack of light reaction.  A ptosis… Read more »

Controlled Substances

There is a certain degree of confusion about controlled substances, which meds fall into what category, which have the highest abuse potential, and so on.  Physicians’ prescribing habits are being scrutinized on a state and national level as it relates to pain medication administration.  This attention will no doubt find it’s way on the boards…. Read more »

Central Retinal Artery Occlusion

Overview Painless loss of monocular vision is the usual presenting symptom of retinal artery occlusion. Ocular stroke commonly is caused by embolism of the retinal artery. Retinal artery occlusion represents an ophthalmologic emergency, and delay in treatment may result in permanent loss of vision. Immediate intervention improves chances of visual recovery, but, even then, prognosis… Read more »