Vitamin B 12 Deficiency

The main syndrome of vitamin B12 deficiency is Biermer’s disease (pernicious anemia). It is characterized by a triad of symptoms: Anemia (megaloblastic anemia) Gastrointestinal symptoms Neurological symptoms Each of those symptoms can occur either alone or along with others. The neurological complex, defined as myelosis funicularis, consists of the following symptoms: Impaired perception of deep… Read more »

Iron Deficiency Anemia

Individuals with iron deficiency anemia have inadequate intake, impaired absorption or transport, physiologic losses associated with chronological or reproductive age, or chronic blood loss secondary to disease. Patients with iron deficiency anemia may report the following: ~ Fatigue and diminished capability to perform hard labor ~ Leg cramps on climbing stairs ~ Craving ice (in some cases, cold… Read more »

Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MUGUS)

The term MGUS denotes the presence of a monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig), also called an M-protein, in the serum or urine in persons without evidence of multiple myeloma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, amyloidosis, or other lymphoproliferative disorders. The malignant diseases, such as multiple myeloma, Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia, plasmacytoma, and plasma cell leukemia all have large tumor bulk and require… Read more »


Basically, only 3 causes of anemia exist: blood loss  increased RBC destruction (hemolysis) decreased production of RBCs. Each of these causes includes a number of etiologies that require specific and appropriate therapy. Genetic etiologies include the following: Hemoglobinopathies Thalassemias Enzyme abnormalities of the glycolytic pathways and others. . . Nutritional etiologies include the following: Iron… Read more »

G-6-PD Deficiency

Most common defect in the hexose-monophosphate shunt Probably partially protects from malaria infection Affects about 200 million people worldwide Patient may experience a hemolytic crisis within hours of exposure to oxidant stresses including: – Antimalarials (primaquine, pamaquine, dapsone), – Sulphonamides (sulfamethoxazole), – Nitrofurantoin, – Analgesics (acetanilid), – Miscellaneous (Vit.K, doxorubicin, nalidixic acid, methilene blue, niridazote… Read more »