Acute Pericarditis

Acute pericarditis is an inflammation of the pericardium characterized by chest pain, pericardial friction rub, and associated ECG changes. Pericarditis Causes Causes include idiopathic (most commonly), viral, renal failure, sepsis, cancer, rheumatic diseases, and pericardectomy. Other causes include SLE, hypothyroidism, hypercholesterolism, acute MI, aortic dissection, irradiation, or trauma. Presentation Chest pain is the cardinal symptom,… Read more »

Acute aortic regurgitation

Aortic regurgitation may be a chronic or acute, presenting as heart failure. The most common cause of chronic aortic regurgitation is bacterial endocarditis.  Acute aortic regurgitation is associated with significant morbidity, which can progress from pulmonary edema to refractory heart failure and cardiogenic shock. Physiologically: Stroke volume declines and ventricular diastolic pressure rises. The first heart… Read more »

Heart Murmurs

  Grading of murmurs Grade Description Grade 1 Very faint Grade 2 Soft Grade 3 Heard all over the precordium Grade 4 Loud, with palpable thrill. Grade 5 Very loud, with thrill. May be heard when stethoscope is partly off the chest. Grade 6 Very loud, with thrill. May be heard with stethoscope entirely off… Read more »

Hypertension Lifestyle Modifications

Lifestyle Modifications Adoption of healthy lifestyles by all persons is critical for the prevention of high BP and is an indispensable part of the management of those with hypertension. Weight loss of as little as 10 lbs (4.5 kg) reduces BP and/or prevents hypertension in a large proportion of overweight persons, although the ideal is… Read more »

Accurate Blood Pressure Measurement

The accurate measurement of blood pressure is essential for successful management. The equipment—whether aneroid, mercury, or electronic—should be regularly inspected and validated. The operator should be trained and regularly retrained in the standardized technique, and the patient must be properly prepared and positioned. Persons should be seated quietly for at least 5 minutes in a… Read more »